Wednesday, October 29, 2014

George Rutherfurd: First Assignments in France

This is the fourth post in a series about my great-grandfather, George Roscoe Oliver Rutherfurd.

George Rutherfurd in France, 1918

After two months spent supervising quarantined soldiers at Camp Merritt, in New Jersey, George Rutherfurd rejoined the 411th Telegraph Battalion in France.  It was April of 1918.  The rest of his battalion had arrived in France a month earlier, landing at Brest and then, after a training period, continuing by train to the Loire Valley.  Company E set up their headquarters surrounding a large barn at St. Ettiene and Company D took over an old chateau at nearby Savenay.

Progress of the 411th across France, from Brest to Chateau-Thierry

Again, I will quote heavily from "Memories of the 411th Telegraph Battalion In the World War Here and 'Over There'" by C.H. Moore to describe the experience of the 411th in France.

During these first days in France we were fortunate in having time and opportunity to learn a great deal about our new friends - the French inhabitants.  Withal we found them a very hospitable, open-hearted, courteous, kindly people.  they were particularly gracious to us Americans and showed us every consideration.  Much has been written about the French and their peculiar customs, but it was the good fortune of our outfit to receive universally fine treatment during all of our stay in the A.E.F. (American Expeditionary Forces), and the writer believes that much of this was due from the fact that we made friendly contact with them in the very beginning.  More will be said about this angle of our experiences as our story progresses, but the writer is sure that each of us will always affectionately recall the kindliness, the gentleness, and the good natured spirit in which these simple home folks of the valley received us.  Bowed down with four years of the horrors and griefs of war, as they were, they had not lost faith and were embued with that spirit of service to their country, which eventually helped more than any other one thing to bring victory about. (p. 54-55)

The first military assignment given to the 411th was to build a wire from St. Nazaire to Nantes, a distance of thirty-nine miles.  This was the beginning of a system of communication which would enable the various military camps to pass messages to each other and would greatly improve the transfer of supplies and information.  While the 411th had brought some equipment with them, they found that they had to borrow shovels, saws and similar items from the French villagers to fully begin their work.  Battalion members got to work of putting up telephone poles and stringing lines.  They drove through the countryside in motorcycles with sidecars, sometimes having to ask permission of residents to put up poles on their property.  By April, when George re-joined the battalion, this first line was being completed, and communication centralized in the headquarters at Tours.  The 411th moved on to their next assignment, which they were delighted to find would take them nearly to Paris.



In late May of 1918, the 411th moved north, camping overnight at the famous cathedral city of Chartres, and then arriving at their new camp in Versailles, at Camp Satory.  As they waited for an official resumption of duties, the men took the opportunity to visit the palace at Versailles and take a trip into Paris, which appears to have thrilled them all.  However, C.H. Moore describes the battalion as restless to get to the front and feel closer to the war.  Being near Paris provided them a glimpse of the action, however.

At this time it was almost a nightly occurrence for the Hun bombing planes to make air raids over Paris and the surrounding suburbs.  A very elaborate system of signaling devices of all kinds had been installed for the purpose of advising the inhabitants as soon as the outlying observation posts detected the Germans coming over.

On this particular night of our first experience, the "alerte" was sounded about 11:30PM;  the sky was immediately lighted with a great many searchlights weaving their shafts of light back and forth across the heavens in search of the Hun planes.  The anti-aircraft guns opened fire and the sky was filled with bouquets of fire from the bursting shells.  (p. 76-77)



George and the other men of the 411th were tired from long days of work and long nights of air raids, but they'd been given a critical assignment.

The job which had been assigned to us in this locality was an extremely important one and had to be finished in the very shortest possible time.  It consisted in the building of a twenty-four wire lead from a junction with the British lines at a small place called Ham to La Belle Epine, just south of Paris, a distance of approximately thirty-three and one-third miles.

This job presented many difficulties in the way of strengthening the French lead, building through forests, over canals, cable work through a half-mile railroad tunnel, private right-of-ways over property owned by Royalty, transposition problems in connecting with a different system of the British and constant delays and annoyances in obtaining the necessary material which had to be hauled long distances by motor truck.  Everybody in the organization was working from daylight to dark, as orders had been received that the work absolutely had to be finished no later than June 30th. (p. 77-78)



Just as this work was completed, the 411th got the news they had been hoping for.  They were being sent closer to the front.  The Germans were trying to cross the Marne and begin an invasion of Paris, and the Army was engaged with them at Chateau-Thierry.  George and the 411th were being sent to nearby La Ferte to construct a line from there to Chateau-Thierry and support communications at the front.

To be continued...


Thursday, October 9, 2014

George Rutherfurd and the 411th Telegraph Battalion

George Roscoe Oliver Rutherfurd's journey to the battlefields of World War I with the other members of the 411th Telegraph Battalion was documented in "Memories of the 411th Telegraph Battalion In the World War Here and 'Over There'" by C.H. Moore.  As this is the best account of the 411th during World War I, I'd like to share some sections of the book that illuminate George's experience

The first chapters of the book describe the battalion's training period in Monterey, California.  The 411th was comprised of civilians from various telephone companies, and they needed a bit of whipping into shape.  Their days seem to have been devoted primarily to exercise and study, with a much-enjoyed hike through the nearby woods on Saturdays.  Here are some quotes regarding the 411th's training and their preparation for war.

The hour of reveille was 5:30 AM and we used to wonder as we stood in line rubbing our eyes and finishing dressing why it was that the Army persisted in doing calisthenics in the dark instead of waiting for daylight to come.  But, after all, those early mornings setting-up exercises in the crisp, foggy air of the early day, probably did more than anything else to harden us and get us ready for the strenuous work of the future. (p.21)


Telegraph classes were formed at this time and about 25 men from each Company were selected to take up the study of telegraphy.  These classes were separated into different sections, depending upon the ability of the men to receive 2, 8, 10 or 15 words per minute.  After having studied Morse Code for about one month and having become rather expert in the use of it, advice was received from the War Department that only Continental Code would be used.  This was rather a setback for the class, but they studied hard and it was not long before the sound of the Continental Code could be heard every morning from 10:30 to noon as if  a dispatcher's office was going at full tilt. (p. 23)


We were to experience many anxious days of waiting while in the Army, but the last two months at Monterey were absolutely the hardest and most tiresome days.  We felt that we had had enough training and were raring to go, especially as new bulletins began to pour in during the Fall of 1917, telling of the Americans' active participation in affairs on the other side of the Atlantic. (p. 29)
In this photo, my Grandma made note of George's location in the second picture from the top.
Monterey had, in the seven months' training period, become just like home to the men of the Battalion - married men had moved their families to live there; many men had married since coming, many more were on the point of proposing and all had made many friends. Preparations for departure were hastily made, tearful good-byes said and on January 18, 1918, the "411th" started on the first leg of their journey overseas. (p. 29-31)

George was one of those men who had married since beginning his training.  He and Julia Ellen Barrett were married in nearby Salinas on August 18, 1917.  They shared five months as newlyweds in Monterey before George shipped out to the war.

On January 18, 1918, the men of the 411th Telegraph Battalion boarded a train to San Francisco. They made a stop at the Ferry Building and then continued on to Fort Mason, on the waterfront, where they boarded the ship Great Northern.  However, they were startled to realize they'd also be transporting some unexpected cargo on their journey.

The next morning, a detail of three officers and ten soldiers boarded a large tug boat and went to Angel Island; little did the members of that detail realize the nature of the trip as no information has been issued concerning it.  Imagine their surprise upon arrival at Angel Island Dock to find four hundred thirty-five German alien prisoners of war.  All had looked forward to a most delightful ocean voyage through the Panama Canal, but here we were face to face with several hundred Germans who were to be guarded and convoyed to an Atlantic port.  All day was consumed in loading the Germans, searching their baggage for possible infernal machines, weapons, etc., and placing them in quarters aboard.  Anchor was lifted at five-thirty PM Thursday, January 24, 1918, and just as dusk was gathering, the ship poked her nose through Golden Gate out into the Pacific. (p. 32-33)

The Great Northern took the battalion and the German prisoners through the Panama Canal, where they lost one American soldier, Frank R. Emery, to illness.  They continued on to South Carolina, where they unloaded the Germans.  From there they sailed to Hoboken, New Jersey, and reported to Camp Merritt, where they prepared to journey on to France.  However, there was a setback.

The stay at Camp Merritt was occupied in refitting the organization with clothing and other necessary equipment for overseas duty.  Many inspections were necessary, and all were in constant dread of something happening to prevent our early departure.  There was an epidemic of contagious diseases, and a very alarming scare seized our Battalion when some thirty-five men were quarantined on account of contact with a suspected case of diphtheria.  Their confinement only lasted about forty-eight hours when it was decided they had not become infected.  All were happy again, as it was rumored we were to embark Monday, February 18th; and then when this rumor became an order, measles broke out in a barracks where two sections of Company E had been quartered.  They were quarantined and had to be left behind.  Lieutenant Geo. R. O. Rutherfurd was detailed to remain with them and proceed at the earliest possible date overseas. (p. 36)

George and the thirty-five sick men from his company would not join their fellow soldiers in France for two months, in April 1918. 

To be continued...

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

George Rutherfurd, Part 2

George Rutherfurd

Not long after moving to Los Angeles in 1913, at the age of seventeen, my great-grandfather George Rutherfurd accepted a job at Pacific Telephone and Telegraph.  This decision would change the course of his life several times.

In 1910, there were two telephone companies servicing Los Angeles, Pacific Telephone and Telegraph and Home Telephone and Telegraph Company. These companies merged in 1916 and became known as the Southern California Telephone Company.  George was a bright and ambitious young man.  While he hadn't had the benefit of a college education, he went above and beyond at the telephone company and moved up in the ranks rather quickly.  My grandmother, LaVerne Rutherfurd Smith, told me the following story about her father's work at the telephone company.

My father went to work at the telephone company and did a lot of extra studying about what made a telephone work.  He was once on a night shift and there was an emergency because the circuits weren't working for some reason, and he was able to go and fix it because he'd just read about it.  He was promoted quickly.  He was a general manager of a district that included Hollywood and the nearby area when he was thirty years old. 

The first two ways that the telephone company would change George's life became apparent early in George's career.  In his first years there, while working at the switchboard, he met his future wife, Julia Ellen Barrett.  Julia was working as a telephone operator when George met her.  They had much in common.  They were both the eldest of five children, working to help support fatherless families.  George adored Julia, whom he always called by both of her names, Julia Ellen.  They married in Salinas, California on August 18, 1917, shortly before George shipped out to fight in World War I.

Julia Ellen Barrett in 1917, while she and George Rutherfurd were dating.

The second way that George's choice of employment would impact his life became clear as the United States drew closer to entering World War I.  The United States Army convened a unit of telephone and telegraph operators, the 411th Telegraph Battalion.  This unit was created for a specific purpose: to lay cable in front of advancing troops in Europe and ensure that military units could effectively communicate.  While this was not a safe job, it was far safer than the assignments of most soldiers in this war.  World War I is known for its trench warfare and brutal battlefield conditions.  The official tally of American dead in World War I is 116,516.  It's very possible that George's life was spared due to an assignment that kept him out of the trenches and off the front lines.

One of George's fellow officers, C.H. Moore, wrote a wonderful book about the 411th, entitled "Memories of the 411th Telegraph Battalion In the World War Here and 'Over There.'"  At the beginning of the first chapter, he recollects how the battalion was formed.

Very shortly after war had been declared The Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company issued a Bulletin announcement that a Telegraph Battalion was to be organized, enrollment in which was to be composed entirely of employees.  The Bulletin also announced that The Telephone Company would pay to individuals accepted by the Government for service in the proposed Battalion the difference between their pay at the time of entering service and the government pay, for a period of at least one year.  Applications for enlistment were sent to all portions of the Company's territory, comprising the States of California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington and part of Idaho.  The question as to "where to enlist" for men in the telephone and telegraph service was immediately answered by this plan, as it not only offered a field where the technical ability and knowledge of telephone and telegraph men could be best utilized in serving their country, but also presented the opportunity of becoming affiliated with an organization composed of men who had been trained to think along the same lines, thus at once establishing a bond of fellowship and comradeship.



George registered for the draft on June 5, 1917, two months after the war began.  An interesting detail can be found on his draft card.  It states that George had prior military experience, having served four years in the Wyoming National Guard, ranking as a first lieutenant.  George was only seventeen years old when he left Wyoming, which would have made him thirteen at the time of his enlistment.  Currently, you would have to be a high school senior to join the National Guard in Wyoming.  I'm unsure if the rules for enlistment were different in the early 1900s or if there is some other explanation for this assertion.



On April 6, 1917, the United States entered World War I. George joined the 411th Telegraph Battalion in Monterey, California on June 29, 1917 for training.   Julia moved to Monterey with George, and two months later they were married in nearby Salinas.

Just a small piece of a panoramic photo of the 411th Telegraph Battalion.  George is third from the left.

George and the other members of his battalion left San Francisco on January 24, 1918 on U.S. Steamship Great Northern and traveled via the Panama Canal to New York.  On February 18, 1918, they departed New York on U.S. Steamship Covington, bound for France.  George would be gone near a year and a half.

George headed to France.


To be continued...


Monday, September 8, 2014

George Rutherfurd



George Rutherfurd was my great-grandfather; the much-beloved father of my Grandma, LaVerne Rutherfurd Smith.  For the first two years of his life, his name was George Roscoe Griffin.  His parents were Anne "Annie" Amelia Dickson and John T. Griffin, and he was the only child of their very brief marriage.  George was born on January 23, 1895 in Douglas, Wyoming, months after his parents separated.  There is no indication that he ever met or communicated with his natural father, John T. Griffin, who lived in Detroit.  When his mother, Annie, married Malcolm Brakspear Oliver Rutherfurd in 1897, George was adopted by his step-father.  His legal name became George Roscoe Oliver Rutherfurd.*

George as a baby in 1895

George spent the first seventeen years of his life in Douglas, Wyoming.  His mother Annie's family had settled there just a few years before George's birth, when one of Annie's brothers took a job in the Douglas telegraph office.  His stepfather, Malcolm, had arrived in Douglas as a Scottish immigrant intent on owning a cattle ranch.  After Malcolm and Annie were married, they had four boys of their own: Malcolm Archibald Oliver Rutherfurd (b. 1898), Archibald Dickson Oliver Rutherfurd (b. 1899), Robert Leslie Oliver Rutherfurd (b. 1903) and Arthur William Oliver Rutherfurd (b. 1906).  Apparently, George got along well with his half-brothers, but my grandmother always said that he was gentler than his younger siblings; more interested in academic and artistic pursuits.

George and his brothers

The ranch where George was raised was a busy place, and George and his brothers were expected to earn their keep.  From his earliest days, George was riding horses, doing chores and working with the cattle.  However, he liked to sneak away and visit with his maternal grandmother, Mary Bellangee Dickson, who read him poetry and encouraged his interest in literature. 

Mary Bellangee Dickson with her grandsons, George (left) and Malcolm (right)

There is some indication that George may have disliked the strictness of the household in which he was raised.  My uncle Tom Smith said that George, known to him as "Pappy," spoke of being beaten regularly for childhood misbehavior.  He claimed that Malcolm would beat or whip all five boys, something he described as "being beaten on Saturday for all the things they did wrong during the week."  Whether this was corporal punishment typical of its time or rose to another level is unknown, but it seems George objected to it.  George also told his grandson Tom that Malcolm's strict Presbyterian teachings put him off religion for life.

George in 1905, at age ten

George told his grandson, Tom Smith, a tale about growing up on the ranch in Douglas.  One day, Malcolm and Annie were away from the ranch, and a fox approached the family's chicken pen.  When the fox jumped up on the fence to attack the chickens, George grabbed a rifle to defend them.  He knew he was not allowed to use the rifle, but he also knew that he had to save the chickens.  He killed the fox.  When his mother and stepfather arrived home, Malcolm congratulated George on the kill, but then punished him for using the rifle.

The Rutherfurd ranch in Douglas, Wyoming

Malcolm Rutherfurd died suddenly on April 12, 1913.  He had contracted pneumonia and was dead within days.  He was thirty-eight.  This unexpected loss had major consequences for Annie and the Rutherfurd boys.  Annie sold the ranch and took her children to Los Angeles.  The reason for this choice isn't entirely clear.  Annie's parents, George and Mary Dickson, and her sister, Elizabeth Dickson, had moved to Oregon at least three years before Malcolm's death.  The most likely scenario is that they had moved again, to Los Angeles, prior to 1913, and Annie was simply joining her family there.  Her parents and sister were soon reunited with Annie and the boys in Los Angeles and helped them settle into a new life.

Life on the ranch.  Malcolm Rutherfurd is second from the left in this photo.

This major life change occurred at a critical time in George's adolescence.  He was seventeen, on the verge of manhood.  Now, he was suddenly responsible for supporting his family.  He might never have had the opportunity to go to college had his stepfather lived, but once Malcolm died and the weight of responsibility became clear, that door was conclusively shut.  By all accounts, George was a very bright young man, one who would have loved academia and flourished at a university.  Beyond his passion for literature and poetry, George was fascinated by the sciences.  He had an endless curiosity for botany and geology.  He liked to paint and became interested in photography.  Arriving in Los Angeles, George set those interests aside to focus on earning a living.

At first, young George got work riding a horse in Western movies.  He'd grown up riding, so this was a natural fit for him. However, he soon became disenchanted with the treatment of the horses on set.  In those days, trip wires and prods were still being used to manipulate the animals, and George found it cruel.  Then, he took a job at Pacific Telegraph and Telephone.  He would remain there for the rest of his career.  This choice of employment had huge ramifications.  It would determine which branch of the armed services George entered during World War I, and it was the place where he would meet his wife.

To be continued...


* A note about the Oliver Rutherfurd surname:  In the 1700s, the Scottish Rutherfurd family found themselves with only a female heir.  That heir, Jane Rutherfurd, married William Oliver in 1771.  The surnames were then combined, so that the Rutherfurd name would live on, and both were given to all the children in this family for many generations.  While the surname is technically Oliver Rutherfurd, in modern times only Rutherfurd is used on legal documents.


Friday, August 29, 2014

DNA Testing and Unending Questions



I've been dipping my toe into the world of DNA testing for genealogy. Some months ago, the genealogy society I belong to hosted a wonderful evening with a DNA expert who presented compelling arguments as to how DNA testing can expand genealogical research and smash brick walls. I started doing some reading on my own and was intrigued. I ordered an Autosomal DNA test from Ancestry.com.

Autosomal DNA looks at both your paternal and maternal genetic material and is a good way to get an overview of your ethnicity.  It can also help you identify cousins who have a common ancestor within about the last 150 years.  After my Autosomal DNA results came in at Ancestry, I uploaded the raw data to Family Tree DNA to get their analysis.  The summary was mostly what I'd expected.

According to both companies, I am 100% European, with the vast majority of that being British Isles heritage.  This is correct, as my known ancestors are largely Irish, English and Scottish.



However, there were some surprises.  Neither company made significant mention of my Dutch and French ancestry.  My French ancestors left France in the late 1600s, during the exodus of the Huguenots, so with all the intermarriages since then, it simply may not register significantly on an Autosomal test that's looking at more recent history.  The big mystery to me is why my Dutch ancestry is not acknowledged.  My great-grandfather, George Beck (formerly Gerhardus Beukenkamp), emigrated from Amsterdam to America in the early 1900s.  His family was in The Netherlands for many generations prior to that time.  I am one-eighth Dutch.  The Ancestry test says I may have 2% Western European heritage, a percentage which doesn't seem to stack up with what I know about my family.  I understand that these tests have their quirks and are not 100% accurate, but I'm puzzled by this omission.

My great-grandfather, George Beck (formerly Beukenkamp)

Another question mark for me is that both tests claim I have some Eastern European ancestry.  Ancestry's results claim this is a trace amount, but Family Tree DNA indicates it could be as much as six percent.  I am baffled by this.  I can't find so much as a single Eastern European ancestor anywhere in my family tree.

However, both Ancestry and Family Tree DNA did immediately connect me with several second cousins that I already knew.  Through Ancestry, where I find it easier to look through family trees and see potential areas of connection with suspected cousins, I've also met a couple of people who appear to be linked to me through specific families.  We're having fun trying to identify the common ancestor.

My dad and me, 2004

Any questions that I might have had about my results pale in comparison to the eyebrows that were raised when my father received his DNA results.  I encouraged him to do a Y-DNA test on 67 markers through Family Tree DNA.  Y-DNA traces the patrilineal line.  The Y chromosome is passed down, unchanged, from father to son. Theoretically, this testing would connect my father with other men with his surname, Lacey.

A Y-DNA 67 marker match with another person gives you a 95% probability of having a common ancestor within the last 150-200 yrs.  We are confident of my father's line back to his second great-grandfather, Bartholomew "Bartley" Lacey, who was born in Rossadillisk, Ireland in the early 1800s.  Because this family comes from a small corner of Ireland, we were very excited to connect with other Laceys. 

My father's results match him with 24 people who are ranked as either 0: Very Tightly Related, 1: Tightly Related or 2: Related.  More information about exactly what those levels of relationship indicate can be found at Family Tree DNA.  Of those 24 matches, there is not one person with the surname Lacey.

The closest connection, the one person classified as Very Tightly Related, has the surname Elliott.  In fact, 15 of the 24 men on that list have the surname Elliott.  Elliott is not a surname that I know to be in my father's family tree at all.  Other surnames in this list of matches are Hall, Pryor and Glendenning.  None of these surnames appear in my father's family tree.  The ancestors of all these matches appear to be Scottish, some of whom seem to have gone to Northern Ireland and England.  None are truly Irish.  None are Laceys.

Rossadillisk
Rossadillisk


One thing to keep in mind is how small the pool of male Laceys is.  Bartley Lacey had three sons, only two of whom, Valentine and Mark, had male descendants of their own.  I believe there are a couple of living male Laceys from Valentine's line who are second great-grandchildren of Bartley.  Bartley's son Mark Lacey was my second great-grandfather.  He had six sons, three of whom were killed in the Cleggan Disaster before having sons of their own.  Of the remaining three, only my great-grandfather, Thomas Lacey, is known to have had children.  Following his line, this means that it's possible the only other direct male descendants of Bartley Lacey are my father and my two brothers, my father's cousin, Skip, my father's brother, Mike, and his son Matt, and now Matt's newborn son.  That's seven descendants, plus a few more out there from Valentine Lacey's line.  There simply aren't a lot of people who would be close Y-DNA matches for my father.

This still doesn't clear up the mystery of the Elliott matches, however.  I'm at a loss to explain them.  Thus far, DNA testing seems to have created many more questions than it has answered.

Monday, August 11, 2014

Patrick Barrett and Catherine Reynolds

Patrick Barrett and Catherine Reynolds were my third great-grandparents.  They were the parents of Albert Patrick Barrett, whom I recently profiled on this blog.

Patrick Barrett was born in 1841 or 1842 in Mount Savage, Maryland.  He would remain in Mount Savage his entire life, working on the railroad and raising his own family there.  He was the the eldest son of Anthony Barrett and Ellen Lavelle, and the second of their eight children.  His parents, Anthony and Ellen, were both immigrants from Ireland who settled in Mount Savage in the 1830s due to its abundance of mining opportunities and large Irish immigrant community.  

A modern day view of Mount Savage (source)

Catherine Reynolds was born about 1841 in Maryland, likely in Mount Savage.  She was the daughter of Francis Reynolds and Catherine O'Toole.  Her parents were both Irish immigrants and her father, too, worked in the mines in Mount Savage.


Industry in Mount Savage

In the mid-1800s, men in Mount Savage were primarily employed as miners, metal workers and railroad employees.  The Mount Savage Historical Society's website provides a glimpse of what the town was like at the time that the Barrett and Reynolds families were living there.

The region developed agriculturally at first and the farm community was practically self-sufficient. Iron ore and coal discoveries, however, along with the proximity of transport routes dictated Mt. Savage’s future. As English and Scotch entrepreneurs passed through the area, they saw not only the beauty of the area, but also that these beautiful mountains were invaluable in mineral wealth.

Soon the English, under the leadership of Benjamin Howell, established the Maryland and New York Iron and Coal Company. In 1839 beginning with the construction of two iron furnaces. Production was begun and eventually a railroad was built which connected Mt. Savage to Cumberland and distant domestic markets through tidewater ports. To supply the blast furnaces of the iron works, coal mines also were opened in the Mt. Savage area. In 1844, the first solid-track iron railroad rail produced in the United States was rolled here. Before that, all iron rails were imported from England.

The Iron Works Company brought hundreds of primarily Irish workers here in the 1830’s and 40’s and built twenty-two three-story houses along Old Row to accommodate the families. Other ethnic groups were also well represented as the town and industries grew. 

In 1853, Mt Savage was the heart of the area railroad operation. Here were located the locomotive repair shops, roundhouse and shops for building and rebuilding railroad cars and engines. Besides the industrial output of the shops, hundreds of young men were trained in a variety of trades related to the railroad industry. Most of the railway and maintenance crews lived in town.

Illustration of a railroad brakeman (source)

Rather than working in the mines like his father and his brothers, Patrick took a job with the railroad.  The 1870 census tells us that he was employed as a brakeman at that time.  The B&O Railroad Museum in Baltimore provides this information about the job of brakeman:

One of the most dangerous jobs on the early railroads was that of brakeman. It was not a job for the faint of heart. It required strength and coordination, not to mention courage. The brakeman had to climb to the roof of the railcar and turn the wheel that engaged the brakes on each car. The air brake was invented in 1869, but not widely used because it was deemed too expensive. It was not until the 1880’s when railroads finally began widespread use of air brakes that the job became less hazardous. (source)
 
In 1880, the census indicates that Patrick was a conductor, so he'd advanced in his career in the past decade.  A conductor would have been in charge of his train, managing other crew members and making sure it ran on time.


The Marriage of Patrick Barrett and Catherine Reynolds

Patrick and Catherine were married on March 11, 1866 at St. Patrick's Catholic Church in Mount Savage.

Marriage registration for Patrick Barrett and Catherine Reynolds

The witnesses to their wedding were John Lavelle, John Sheridan and Mary Reynolds.  The service was officiated by Rev. Richard Brown.  Mary Reynolds was likely Catherine's elder sister, one of her six siblings.  John Lavelle would have been Patrick's maternal uncle or cousin.  I'm not sure what relation John Sheridan had to the bride and groom.  He may have been a family member or just a friend.  Richard Brown, who officiated at Patrick and Catherine's wedding, was an influential religious leader in Mount Savage.  He oversaw the building of St. Patrick's Church in the 1860s. The church still stands today.

St. Patrick's Church in Mount Savage

The Barrett Family

Together, Patrick and Catherine Barrett had eight children:
  1. John Barrett
  2. James Barrett
  3. Ellen Barrett
  4. Albert Patrick Barrett
  5. Anthony Barrett
  6. Mary Barrett
  7. Julia Barrett
  8. Catherine Barrett
John and James Barrett were twins, born on April 22, 1866, just a month after their parents' marriage, if you believe the dates provided by the church.  As you'll see below in regards to the birth dates of the other Barrett children, there may be some cause to question the dates noted in parish records.  James and John were baptized at St. Patrick's Church on April 25th.   The baptismal sponsors for  James were John Sheridan (likely the same who was a witness at the Barrett-Reynolds wedding) and Bridget Monihan.  The sponsors for John were Anthony Reily and Mary Barrett.

The baptism of James and John Barrett

Ellen Barrett was born on October 21, 1869, according to parish records, and baptized at St. Patrick's Church on October 24th.  Her baptismal sponsors were James Reynolds and Bridget Barrett.  Ellen married William H. Evans.  They ran an inn in the mining town of Bakerton, Pennsylvania, as detailed in my earlier post about Albert Patrick Barrett.

The baptism of Ellen Barrett

Albert Patrick Barrett, my second great grandfather, was born on February 19, 1870.  At least, that's what his death certificate tells us.  Obviously, he could not have been born just four months after the birth of his sister Ellen.  Census records clearly indicate that Ellen was older than Albert, and that Albert was older than his brother Anthony, born in 1870 or 1871.  The exact dates are uncertain, however.  These three siblings were very close in age, which may explain the close relationship they seemed to share.  My guess is that Ellen was born in 1869, Albert in 1870 and Anthony in 1871, but that their birth dates were recorded incorrectly at St. Patrick's Church.

Albert Patrick Barrett's death certificate

Anthony Barrett's baptismal record states that he was born on September 24, 1870.  Again, this date is confusing given the birth dates of his siblings Ellen and Albert.  Anthony married a woman named Ida and they had nine children between 1902 and 1918.  Like his grandfathers and his brother Albert, Anthony was a coal miner.

I know very little about the three youngest Barrett children, Mary, Julia and Catherine.  They were all born in Mount Savage; Mary in about 1873, Julia in about 1876 and Catherine in November 1878.

Catherine "Katie" Barrett is found living with her paternal aunt, Bridget Barrett Barnard on the 1900 census, in Cumberland, Maryland.  At that time, she was working as a clerk.  I have no marriage or death records for Katie or her sisters Mary and Julia at this time.


The Deaths of Catherine and Patrick Barrett

Catherine Reynolds Barrett died before the 1880 census was taken on June 19, 1880.  She was in her late 30s.  Her youngest child, also Catherine, would have been younger than age two at the time of her death.  Her husband, Patrick, is listed on the 1880 census as a widower, with all eight children still in his household.

Patrick Barrett died on February 3, 1903 in Mount Savage.  While he survived Catherine by more than two decades, it appears he did not remarry. 

Monday, August 4, 2014

Albert Patrick Barrett

Albert Patrick Barrett

Albert Patrick Barrett was my second great-grandfather, the husband of my second great-grandmother, Nellie Barrett.

Albert was born on February 19, 1870 in Mount Savage, Maryland.  His paternal grandparents, Anthony Barrett and Ellen Lavelle, were Irish immigrants who settled in Mount Savage in the 1830s.  Albert's given name may have been Alloysus, as he is identified on the 1880 census, but he appears to have only gone by the more conventional Albert.

Sometime between 1880 and 1893, Albert moved to Illinois.  It seems that he made this move alone.  His parents and siblings remained in Maryland.  In Illinois, he met Helen Cecilia "Nellie" O'Hare, who had been born and raised in Williamson County.  They married in Belleville, Illinois on October 18, 1893.  Their first child, my great-grandmother Julia Ellen Barrett, was born a year later.

Albert's father, Patrick Barrett, had worked on the railroad in Maryland, and there's some possibility that Albert may have followed the railroad west to Illinois.  However, in 1900, 25-year old Albert was working as a coal miner.

Here is some information about coal mining in the Belleville, Illinois area:

An immense deposit (400,000 acres) of bituminous coal was found in St. Clair County. By 1874, some farmers had become coal miners. One hundred shaft mines were in operation in and around Belleville. The coal brought the steam railroad to town, which allowed for the transport of many tons of coal to be shipped daily from Belleville to St. Louis. Later, Belleville would have the first electric trolley in the state. (Wikipedia)

The 1900 census tells us that Albert and Nellie were living in nearby O'Fallon, Illinois with their daughters Julia and Magdalene in 1900.  Also living with them was Nellie's widowed father, Michael "Mike" O'Hare.  Just a few short months later, a new baby would join the household.  Albert's eldest son, Stephen James Barrett, was born on August 27, 1900.

In total, Albert and Nellie had five children:

Julia Ellen Barrett (1894-1941)
Martha Magdalene Barrett (1897-1970)
Stephen James Barrett (1900-1949)
Charles William Barrett  (1903-1975)
Bernard Theodore Barrett (1906-1990)

In late 1906, Albert moved his family to Bakerton, Pennsylvania. His sister, Ellen Barrett Evans, had been widowed there and Albert moved his family to assist her. Albert and his sister Ellen were close.  He had named his daughter Julia Ellen in her honor. Ellen had been married to William Evans, and together they had six children. William died suddenly of typhoid fever on September 22, 1906, at the age of 34.  When her husband died, Ellen's children were still very small.  Madeline, their youngest, was born the year of her father's death. William and Ellen had run an inn together, and after William’s death, Ellen struggled to keep the business afloat and make ends meet. Her brother, Albert, came to assist.  Between Albert and Ellen's families, there were eleven young mouths to feed.

The Barrett family lived in Bakerton, a small, gritty coal mining town in Cambria County, for the next four years.  Albert is listed on the 1910 census as the proprietor of a public house, so it appears that he had some success in helping his sister Ellen keep the business alive.  Unfortunately, Albert's health deteriorated during his years in Pennsylvania. He may have been drinking before the move, but apparently this tendency grew steadily worse between 1906 and 1910. Whether this was simply Albert's predisposition, or perhaps exacerbated by the stress of running a business and the convenience of a bar in his workplace, we cannot know.

Albert died on May 6, 1910 in Carroll, Pennsylvania.  The cause of death listed on his death certificate is acute alcoholism, with a contributing factor of meningitis. He'd been suffering from meningitis for four days prior to his death at age 40.  His wife Nellie and their five children all survived him.



After Albert's death, Nellie moved her family to Los Angeles, California.  Her health had also suffered during the years in Pennsylvania.  Nellie had severe asthma, and doctors suggested a warm, dry climate free of coal dust might improve her condition. 

Albert's sister Ellen managed to eke out a living without her brother.  She took in lodgers to pay the bills.  In 1920, according to the census, she had four steel mill workers living under her roof, along with the younger four of her six children. She did not remarry.

Albert lived a short life filled with hard labor and tough circumstances, but his line continues with his many descendants.